Teucrium scordium L. ( Germandrée des marais )


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La Germandrée des marais (Teucrium scordium L.) fait partie de la famille des Lamiacées (Lamiaceae). Sa période de floraison s’étale de Juin à Août.

La Germandrée des marais (Teucrium scordium L.)

La Germandrée des marais (Teucrium scordium L.)

Répartition française :
Elle est notée comme rare en île de France : En Seine-et-Marne, la vallée de la Marne l’abrite. Dans l’Essonne, quelques stations existent dans la vallée de l’Ecole et de la Juine. En région Centre, elle est protégée. Les stations dans le Loiret se trouvent à l’Est du département. Dans l’Indre-et-Loire, elle est présente dans les vallées de la Loire et du Cher. En Champagne-Ardennes, on trouve d’abondantes stations au bord du Lac d’Orient près de Troyes. En Bretagne, elle est présente. Par exemple, dans le Finistère, elle est localisée dans la partie Sud de la Baie d’Audierne, en particulier dans les zones humides des dunes. On note sa présence dans le Morbihan près de Quiberon. Elle est rare en Basse-Normandie. Dans la Sarthe, elle est localisée dans le marais de Cré. En Bourgogne, on peut l’apercevoir dans le val de Saône et au niveau des lacs-réservoirs de l’Auxois. Elle est complètement absente du Massif Central et de la partie Ouest des Pyrénées. Dans le Vaucluse, elle a disparu. Dans la Drôme, une seule station subsiste tout près de Crest. Elle est présente dans les bas-marais du Jura.

Ecologie :
La Germandrée des marais se trouve dans les zones de marais peu acides ou alcalins. En contexte marin, on la retrouve dans les dépressions à l’arrière de la dune. On la trouve également dans les queues d’étangs. Elle est en forte régression à cause du drainage des marais.

Protection :
L’espèce est protégée dans les régions
Champagne-Ardennes, Picardie, Centre, Rhône-Alpes, Lorraine, Alsace, Aquitaine, Nord-Pas-de-Calais, Pays de la Loire.

La Germandrée des marais (Teucrium scordium L.)

La Germandrée des marais (Teucrium scordium L.)

Description :
La plante mesure entre 10 et 60 cm de hauteur. La tige est de forme carrée comme toutes les Lamiacées. Elle est non ligneuse. Les feuilles sont de forme elliptique et sont crénelées. Elles sont opposées et souples. Elles mesurent de 2 à 3cm. Les deux faces du limbe sont pubescentes. C’est ce qui lui donne un aspect grisâtre. Les fleurs sont de couleur rose. La corolle mesure 7 à 10mm. Le pédicelle est court. L’inflorescence est généralement composée de 2 à 4 fleurs en verticille, très souvent tournées du même côté. Le calice est velu. Ce dernier est deux fois plus petit que la corolle.

Usages / Autres particularités :
Si on frotte la plante, elle dégage une odeur d’ail. Il s’agit d’une plante vivace. Contrairement à Teucrium chamaedrys par exemple, les feuilles disparaissent l’hiver.

Taxonomie :
Teucrium scordium L. a pour synonymes (Informations issues de la BDTFX Version 2.0, Tela Botanica) :
– Chamaedrys palustris Gray
– Chamaedrys scordium (L.) Moench
– Monochilon palustris Dulac
– Scordium palustre Fourr.
– Teucrium arenarium S.G.Gmel.
– Teucrium palustre Lam.
– Teucrium scordium subsp. palustre Gams
– Teucrium scordium var. camusianum Rouy
– Trixago scordium (L.) Raf.

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